This is a question that analytic philosophers have been asking since the latter part of the 19th Century. Many would argue this question is the formation foundation of analytic philosophy starting with Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russell’s attempt at uniting logic and mathematics —-in their Principia Mathematica advocating the “logicism” view that all mathematical truths […]

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This question is actually the reverse of what should be asked about this Theorem: why is it so famous within mathematics? Answers by mathematicians to this question assume their conceptual math problems are at the heart of this Theorem and thus ridicule its application to conceptual problems of formal logical explanations for anything else. This […]

In the simplest of terms, code is not language and language is not code even though informally sometimes it is incorrectly called “computer language”. Neither the computer nor any linked community of computers such as the internet speaks a language; humans represent useful language information in their computer use through code. Language consists of and […]

I. Prologue / Nature of the Problem. Replacing mind/body dualism with brain/body dualism for consciousness and perception solves no philosophical or scientific problems but only further convolutes and obscures the problems. If hard sciences such as physics and chemistry can create predictive meanings for their wordgames through fictions or entities (regardless of which they […]

I. Prologue / The Nature of the Problem and Questions Presented The aphorism “people only believe what they want to believe” is a common description by proponents of an observation or argument of their opponents’ beliefs — proponents and opponents in a relative sense, this aphorism is often said simultaneously by all parties having opposing descriptions […]

I. Prologue/The Nature of the Question It would be silly for me to do any type of critical analysis about data science for the simple reason that at this point in my life I cannot do the math. “To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to […]